Ook circuleerden er vanaf ongeveer talloze “brieven” die – al dan niet terecht – werden toegeschreven aan apostelen , zoals Paulus en Petrus , maar ook van Jakobus , Judas en Brief van Barnabas. Binnen deze traditie circuleerden vanaf ongeveer ook diverse apocalypsen, waarvan de Openbaring van Johannes het uiteindelijk heeft “gemaakt” tot canoniek. Een deel van deze andere geschriften zijn gnostische geschriften die in Nag Hammadi werden gevonden, zoals het Evangelie van Thomas. Deze geschriften stammen waarschijnlijk uit de 2e en 3e eeuw. De meesten hebben nooit algemene erkenning genoten. Een klein aantal geschriften de brief van Barnabas , de Leer van de Apostelen , de Herder van Hermas en 1 en 2 Clemens hadden bij velen een groot gezag, maar hebben uiteindelijk geen algemene erkenning gekregen. Het proces van canonisatie[ bewerken ] Criteria[ bewerken ] Volgens nieuwtestamenticus Bart D. Ehrman hanteerden de proto-orthodoxe christenen vier criteria om te bepalen welke boeken in de canon thuishoorden en welke niet. Te recente geschriften zoals De herder van Hermas werden uitgesloten.
Gospels, dating through the combined external and internal evidence
Ascension of Jesus Most scholars hold the two-source hypothesis as most probable, which argues that the author used the Gospel of Mark and the hypothetical Q document in addition to unique material, as sources for the gospel. The author of Luke is usually agreed to be more faithful to the wording and order of the Q material than was the author of Matthew.
Information on the Lost Sayings Gospel Q. According to the Two Source Hypothesis accepted by a majority of contemporary scholars, the authors of Matthew and Luke each made use of two different sources: the Gospel of Mark and a non-extant second source termed Q.
The present article is confined to the consideration of the relations and general features of the first 3 Gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke –ordinarily named “the nodetitle ,” because, in contrast with the Fourth Gospel, they present, as embodying a common tradition, the same general view of the life and teaching of Jesus during His earthly ministry, and of His death and resurrection.
The Fourth Gospel, in itself and in its relation to the Synoptics, with the Johannine literature and theology generally, are treated in special articles. See Gospel of John ; Johannine Theology , etc. The Gospels in Church Tradition: The place of the Gospels in church tradition is secure. It is acknowledged that by the end of the 2nd century these 4 Gospels, and none else, ascribed to the authors whose names they bear, were in universal circulation and undisputed use throughout the church, stood at the head of church catalogues and of all VSS, were freely used, not only by the Fathers of the church Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement, Origen, etc.
Justin Martyr , in the middle of the century, freely quotes from “Memoirs of the Apostles,” “which are called Gospels,” “composed by the apostles and those that followed them” 1 Apol. What these Gospels were is made apparent by the Diatessaron, or Harmony of Four, of his disciple Tatian circa , constructed from the 4 Gospels we possess.
Moffatt likewise says, “These explanations of Matthew and Mark must have been in circulation by the end of the 1st century” Introduction to Lit. The gist of the testimony of Papias is: The Gnostic Marcion used a mutilated Luke. Nature of the Problem:
The Catholics made purely theological arguments as to why Jesus Christ had to have existed “in the flesh” None of these points are meant to stand on their own, but collectively they provide a very strong argument against the story of Jesus Christ being based on a real person. It is important to note that we have one, and only one, source of information about the life of Jesus and that is the Christian Gospels. The Gospels are the sole source of information about this figure; everything that we “know” about “him” depends on these sources.
Unfortunately, the reviewer does not give further examples, as the ones which he mentions do not substantiate his case that my use of sources ‘are a significant impediment to this monograph’s intention of advancing contemporary scholarship and discussion on Marcion’s Gospel and the Synoptic Gospels’.
The Greek fragments are P. Oxy 1 is dated shortly after CE for paleographical reasons, and the other two Greek fragments are estimated to have been written in the mid third century. The Coptic text was written shortly before the year CE. Substantial differences do exist between the Greek fragments and the Coptic text. These are best explained as variants resulting from the circulation of more than one Greek edition of Gos.
The existence of three different copies of the Greek text of Gos. According to the critical edition of the Greek text by Attridge in Layton The presence of inner-Coptic errors in the sole surviving translation, moreover, suggests that our present Gos. The ms tradition indicates that this gospel was appropriated again and again in the generations following its composition.
Like many other gospels in the first three centuries, the text of Gos.
Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels
Moody Smith comments Johannine Christianity, p. Since the epoch-making commentary of Rudolf Bultmann, the hypothesis of a semeia- or miracle source has gained rather wide acceptance. Moody Smith writes Johannine Christianity, p. The demonstration of the existence of a source or sources is not entirely dependent upon the possibility of isolating it with certainty and precision throughout the Gospel.
But there is one source whose use must be recognized: These miracles are generally on a grander and more elaborate scale than those in the synoptic gospels and seem to go further in presenting Jesus as a Hellenistic “divine man.
I would like to provide responses to the arguments and evidence that Richard Carrier offers to rebut my argument that Jesus existed. This task is complicated because, in his response to my original piece, Carrier says a surprisingly small amount that engages my argument and a large amount that does not.. Approximately half of his piece is devoted to other matters.
Vinzent proposed that Marcion of Sinope was the founder of the Gospel genre known to us in the Synoptic literature and therefore the terminus post quem of the Synoptics should be pushed as late as the time of Marcion around CE. This blog post is not a detailed review nor a response but a survey of the ideas that came to my mind while going through it.
Vinzent and the Synoptic Problem The book is intensely engaged with scholarly literature and offers a breath of fresh air for some of the topics it is dealing with. It comes in four chapters; the first and the fourth which is pretty short are for Marcion and his Gospel while the second and the third are for discussing the synoptic problem and the dating or re-dating of the NT Gospels.
Of course the reader of these words can now imagine what an overwhelmingly huge task it is to prove his point. To do that in pages Vinzent had to make two major statements that nearly annihilated all the possible barriers on the way to his theory. He had to dismiss: In his new book, Vinzent returned with his arguments and questions as early as F C Baur and his contemporaries cf. Non-canonical and non-Marcionite writings.
Based on his dismissal of NT scholarship efforts, particularly in the last 50 years, Gnosticism and other manuscripts have become insignificant. For example, yes we do have several constructions of Q but this is because the scholars who worked on it showed a high degree of seriousness that led them to start the construction process every time in dialogue with other constructions. But they were all working on the texts and at the same time in constant dialogue with the progress of scholarship.
Marcion and the dating of the synoptic gospels (Book, ) 
In relation with the feeding of the Lk9: Because those are sayings “logias” only, I do not see here any relation with GMatthew, more so owing to “compiled” rather than “composed” , as shown in most copies of Eusebius’ work HC. Furthermore, the fact that “Matthew” was attributed a collection of sayings therefore emphasizing Jesus as a sage is supported by the gospel of Thomas: Matthew said to him, “You are like a wise philosopher.
Irenaeus, ‘Against Heresies’, V,
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively term synoptic (Latin: synopticus; Greek: συνοπτικός, translit. synoptikós) comes via Latin from the Greek.
Regardless of the truth and the facts, their dogmatic position is that if God permitted the Bible to have been altered, then the present day church could not be genuine. They maintain that the Christian Church as it stands is the Church of Christ — and that if God was to allow the scriptures to be corrupted, that God’s people would not know what to believe.
And when it was pointed out that many of the favorite passages which the Church used as a foundation for their dogma does not exist in the vast majority of Greek manuscripts and texts which is the actual source of the New Testament scriptures, it was then stated that God personally wrote the King James Version of the Bible — which, they believe has been personally authored by God separate and apart from the Greek manuscripts and texts, is seen by many as infallible.
In accord with their blind-faith reasoning, they promote the dogmatic presumption that the Christian Church must be maintained in order for man to be saved, and they reason that God would protect and not allow the written word of the scriptures to be corrupted. And since it is clear that both the Greek and Latin texts were corrupted, they promote the dogma that the King James Version is separate and apart from all other texts and translations — being the actual work of God.
With respect to the King James Version only groups, the Wikipedia states: King James Version Only advocates believe that the modern translations of the New Testament are based on Greek manuscripts that contain intentional doctrinal corruptions from Gnostic sources in Alexandria which deny or deprecate the deity of Christ, the Trinity, or salvation by grace through faith. Yet, the Bible itself declares this position by the Church to be fatally flawed. With respect to the Hebrew scriptures, in the words of the prophet Jeremiah: But behold, the lying pen of the scribes Has made it into a lie” Jer 8: Thus, a sincere seeker will ask: Is the position of the Church true that God stood sentinel over the scriptures?
Based upon what we do know regarding the purity of the Bible, Christians today should be greatly alarmed.
Canonvorming van het Nieuwe Testament
Roth, on ‘Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels’ ‘He is the truer friend who by his censure heals me, than the one who by flattery anoints my head’ Aug. What I have written at the start of my comments on Paul Foster’s review is even more true for the discussion below. Dieter Roth was so fair to send me his review even prior to its publication. I did not want to correct things then, as I believe in more learning experience, when pros and cons are discussed in the public, so that understandings and misunderstandings and both will occur on the writer as on the reviewer’s side will allow the discussion to move on and to share the route to a deeper understanding.
Hence, before I seriously engage with this review here, let me again, express my gratitude and appreciation for Roth’s reading and reviewing the monograph.
It evaluates our commonly known arguments for dating the Synoptic Gospels, elaborates on Marcion’s crucial role in the Gospel making and argues for a re-dating of the Gospels to the years between and AD.”–Page 4 of cover.
The siglum Q derives from the German word “Quelle,” which means “Source. Although the temptation story and the healing of the centurion’s son are usually ascribed to Q, the majority of the material consists of sayings. Some scholars have observed that the Gospel of Thomas and the Q material, as contrasted with the four canonical gospels, are similar in their emphasis on the sayings of Jesus instead of the passion of Jesus. Such a common order demands a theory that Q at some stage existed in written form.
Tuckett comments on the argument that variations between Matthew and Luke are due to variant translations of an Aramaic Q op. It is doubtful if more than a very few cases of variation between Matthew and Luke can be explained in this way. Many of the alleged translation variants turn out to be simply cases of synonyms, and the differences between Matthew and Luke can often be explained just as well as due to the redactional activity of the evangelists Kloppenborg For example, in Luke
Gospel of Marcion
Jesus thanks his Father Return of the unclean spirit Discourse against the scribes and Pharisees Lament over Jerusalem Unlike triple-tradition material, double-tradition material is very differently arranged in the two gospels. Matthew’s lengthy Sermon on the Mount , for example, is paralleled by Luke’s shorter Sermon on the Plain , with the remainder of its content scattered throughout Luke. This is consistent with the general pattern of Matthew collecting sayings into large blocks, while Luke does the opposite and intersperses them with narrative.
These are termed the major and minor agreements the distinction is imprecise  .
Information on the Gospel of Thomas. The Gospel of Thomas is extant in three Greek fragments and one Coptic manuscript. The Greek fragments are P. Oxy. , which corresponds to the prologue and sayings of the Gospel of Thomas; P. Oxy. 1, which correponds to the Gospel of Thomas , , ; and P. Oxy. , which corresponds to the Gospel of Thomas 24 and
The Catholic New Testament , as defined by the Council of Trent , does not differ, as regards the books contained, from that of all Christian bodies at present. Like the Old Testament , the New has its deuterocanonical books and portions of books, their canonicity having formerly been a subject of some controversy in the Church. These are for the entire books: The formerly disputed passages are three: Mark’s Gospel, xvi, about the apparitions of Christ after the Resurrection ; the verses in Luke about the bloody sweat of Jesus Since the Council of Trent it is not permitted for a Catholic to question the inspiration of these passages.
Markus Vinzent’s Blog: Dieter T. Roth, on ‘Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels’
Strictly speaking, the Gospel is anonymous B. Papias the bishop of Hierapolis A. So Mark made no mistake in thus recording some things just as he remembered them. For he was careful of this one thing, to omit none of the things he had heard and to make no untrue statements therein. Justin Martyr [Dialogue, Cyril of Jerusalem c.
Mar 17, · A new book on the Synoptic Gospels has been released. Professor Markus Vinzent of King’s College London, the co-editor of Studia Patristica, has put his years of research on Marcion into his new book Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels. Prof.
When were the gospels written? With their absence in Justin Martyr’s works, we remain with the dating of the gospels to the last quarter of the second century. The Gospel Dates When scrutinized, the Pauline epistles do not reveal any historical Jesus; nor do they demonstrate any knowledge of the existence of the four canonical gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
As has been proved repeatedly, the gospels themselves cannot be viewed as “history” written by “eyewitnesses. The New Testament is now known, in whole or in part, in nearly five thousand Greek manuscripts alone. Every one of these handwritten copies differ from the other one It has been estimated that these manuscripts and quotations differ among themselves between , and , times. The actual figure is, perhaps, much higher. A study of Greek manuscripts of the Gospel of Luke has revealed more than 30, different readings It is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the New Testament in which the manuscripts’ tradition is wholly uniform.
It would be impossible to date the appearance of the gospels based on the extant manuscripts, since the autographs or originals were destroyed long ago, an act that would appear to be the epitome of blasphemy, were these texts truly the precious testimonials by the Lord’s very disciples themselves. Although a miniscule bit of papyrus Rylands P52 dating to the middle of the second century has been identified speculatively as part of “John’s Gospel” The two verses of “John’s Gospel,” comprising only about 60 words, could easily be part of another, non-canonical gospel, of which there were numerous in the first centuries of the Christian era.
That such texts contained verses paralleling those found in the canonical gospels is known from the writings of Justin Martyr, for example, who quotes from a number of them. In this regard, Church father and archbishop of Constantinople John Chrysostom c. The orthodox dating, of course, attempts to put the gospels a century earlier, between 70 and CE.
The Lost Sayings Gospel Q
Details of manner or circumstance: The boy had barley loaves—6: When Mary poured the ointment, the house was filled with the fragrance— The branches used at the triumphant entry were palm branches— Roman soldiers come with the officers of the priests to arrest Jesus—
Also gateway to gospels dating through the internal evidence Front page: Jesus, a historical reconstruction (with website search function) You may email the author, and learn more about him here Note: all emphases are mine.
Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: You do not currently have access to this article. Sign In Forgot password?
Don’t have an account? Sign in via your Institution Sign in. Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.