ESR

ESR

For immature forms see erythrocytic series. In humans the normal mature erythrocyte is a biconcave disk without a nucleus, about 7. Erythrocyte formation erythropoiesis takes place in the red bone marrow in the adult, and in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow of the fetus. It requires an ample supply of dietary elements such as iron, cobalt, copper, amino acids, and certain vitamins. Called also red cell or corpuscle and red blood cell or corpuscle. They owe their oxygen-carrying ability to hemoglobin , a combination of an iron-containing prosthetic group heme with a protein globin. Hemoglobin attracts and forms a loose connection with free oxygen, and its presence enables blood to absorb some 60 times the amount of oxygen that the plasma by itself absorbs. Oxyhemoglobin is red, which gives oxygenated blood its red color.

Translation of ESR in English

The Original Hacker’s Dictionary [This file, jargon. Many years after the original book went out of print, Eric Raymond picked it up, updated it and republished it as the New Hacker’s Dictionary. Unfortunately, in the process, he essentially destroyed what held it together, in various ways: Often used to terminate a conversation. Often made up on the spur of the moment.

Often the substitution will be made in such a way as to slip in a standard jargon word:

Definition Instrument for the detection of electron paramagnetic transitions, consisting of a tunable source of electromagnetic radiation, a resonant cavity, an electromagnet, and a detector.

Electron Spin Resonance When the molecules of a solid exhibit paramagnetism as a result of unpaired electron spins , transitions can be induced between spin states by applying a magnetic field and then supplying electromagnetic energy, usually in the microwave range of frequencies. Electron spin resonance has been used as an investigative tool for the study of radicals formed in solid materials, since the radicals typically produce an unpaired spin on the molecule from which an electron is removed.

Particularly fruitful has been the study of the ESR spectra of radicals produced as radiation damage from ionizing radiation. Study of the radicals produced by such radiation gives information about the locations and mechanisms of radiation damage. The interaction of an external magnetic field with an electron spin depends upon the magnetic moment associated with the spin, and the nature of an isolated electron spin is such that two and only two orientations are possible.

The application of the magnetic field then provides a magnetic potential energy which splits the spin states by an amount proportional to the magnetic field Zeeman effect , and then radio frequency radiation of the appropriate frequency can cause a transition from one spin state to the other. The energy associated with the transition is expressed in terms of the applied magnetic field B, the electron spin g-factor g , and the constant mB which is called the Bohr magneton.

If the radio frequency excitation was supplied by a klystron at 20 GHz, the magnetic field required for resonance would be 0. If you were always dealing with systems with a single spin like this example, then ESR would always consist of just one line, and would have little value as an investigative tool, but several factors influence the effective value of g in different settings.

Geochronology

Part A Printed in Great Britain. Since then ESR-dating has been widely applied to a number of different materials in various fields in earth sciences, geomorphology, and archaeology. Figure 1 summarizes the ESR-dating attempts, which were accompanied with various degrees of success. In ESR-dating the sample under investigation acts as a dosimeter, which records the doses from all natural radioactive sources in its immediate environ- ment up to a distance of about 30 cm as well as a component of cosmic rays.

If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh.

Overclocking refers to running a component at a speed greater than it was designed for. This gives enhanced performance but often at the expense of decreased stability. This site maintains listings of network drivers available on the web, organized by company. Includes links to useful resources. PC maintenance article – It s a brush based fan, which means it makes noise -particularly when it s cold at bootup.

Some also want to replace it to get better cooling. The most common way of doing this for most chipsets is to use a Blue Orb chipset cooler. To start the mod, I removed the old fan. You have to be careful when taking it off, because the back of the board has a lot of leads which can be scratched easily. Just use a needle nose pliers to clamp the plastic and push it through the hole.

The fan will then remove with ease. Be careful not to scratch the leads on the back of the board I was surprised to find that Abit actually used thermal compound although a very small amount between the chipset fan and the Northbridge. I didn t think there would be any kind of material there at all.

Concepts and methods of ESR dating

Because GitHub is big and their study is automated, they manage to get a really nice sample size — about 2. They find that women get more! That makes their better performance extra impressive. So the big question is whether this changes based on obviousness of gender. They do not provide an analysis of the population as a whole! Among insiders, women do the same as men when gender is hidden, but better than men when gender is revealed.

Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were carried out using the Varian E-line-X ESR spectrometer, adjusting the modulation frequency and microwave power level so as to avoid saturation effects in the ESR spectra.

Others Cave popcorn , or cave coral, are small, knobby clusters of calcite Cave pearls are the result of water dripping from high above, causing small"seed” crystals to turn over so often that they form into near-perfect spheres of calcium carbonate Snottites are colonies of predominantly sulfur oxidizing bacteria and have the consistency of"snot”, or mucus [1] Calcite rafts are thin accumulations of calcite that appear on the surface of cave pools Speleothems may also occur in lava tubes.

Although sometimes similar in appearance to speleothems in caves formed by dissolution, these are formed by the cooling of residual lava within the lava tube. Speleothems formed from salt, sulfur and other minerals are also known. Speleothems made of pure calcium carbonate are a translucent white color, but often speleothems are colored by minerals such as iron , copper or manganese , or may be brown because of mud and silt particulate inclusions.

Chemistry Many factors impact the shape and color of speleothem formations including the rate and direction of water seepage, the amount of acid in the water, the temperature and humidity content of a cave, air currents, the above ground climate, the amount of annual rainfall and the density of the plant cover. Most cave chemistry revolves around calcite ; CaCO3, the primary mineral in limestone. It is a slightly soluble mineral whose solubility increases with the introduction of carbon dioxide , CO2.

It is paradoxical in that its solubility decreases as the temperature increases, unlike the vast majority of dissolved solids. This decrease is due to interactions with the carbon dioxide, whose solubility is diminished by elevated temperatures; as the carbon dioxide is released, the calcium carbonate is precipitated. Most other solution caves that are not composed of limestone or dolostone are composed of gypsum calcium sulfate , the solubility of which is positively correlated with temperature.

As climate proxies Samples can be taken from speleothems to be used like ice cores as a proxy record of past climate changes.

News

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Seen on Tumblr , along with associated discussion: Nobody is the villain of their own life story. Everybody thinks of themselves as an honest guy or gal just trying to get by, constantly under assault by circumstances and The System and hundreds and hundreds of assholes.

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A cc brain slightly below the modern European average. The female specimens are less well-preserved than the males, but retain enough characteristics to identify them as female, and to make comparisons between the males and females. Skhul 2 has a well-developed mental eminence the best developed chin out of the Skhul sample , but its pronounced continuous supraorbital torus makes it nearly impossible to categorize the specimen by itself as an anatomically modern human.

The Skhul 7 female has the most Neanderthal-like characteristics, but it is as yet unreconstructed. The wide variation of traits from this site range from very Neanderthal-like, to very modern-like. The Skhul V individual also provided some postcranial material in the burial. This material included some vertebrae, some ribs, most of a left scapula, the right clavicle and part of the left clavicle, both humeri, the right radius and part of the left radius, the right ulna and part of the left ulna, various hand bones, the right ilium, half of the ischium, most of the right femur and part of the left femur, parts of the right and left tibiae, most of the left fibula, and some of the left foot bones.

In general, the limb bones are longer and more gracile than the more robust Neanderthals. Postcrania from the other individuals is also present, which makes an examination of the stature of these people possible. The Skhul 7 individual female is approximately cm tall, while two male individuals Skhul 4 and Skhul 5 average cm, a very large sexual difference.

The high sexual dimorphism seen in the sample is not particularly secure or likely due to the extremely small sample size. The average midsex height figure is cm, a very high figure. The postcrania shows many more differences between the Skhul individuals and the Neanderthals than the cranial material does.

ESR Meaning



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